||Underlined Links in this column are
cross references to other entries
||Type of pallet used in
escapements of clocks & watches shaped like a ship's anchor.
||Spindle or axle on that clock wheels are
mounted. (Also see Barrel Arbor).
||Found in some clocks, a small
plate mounted on back plate of clock in that the pallet
||The plate in that the movements back pivots
run (the back plate is that that is furthest from the dial).
||Oscillating part usually a wheel (with tiny
screws specifically mounted around the circumference, so as to compensate
for deviations in temperature and humidity) that controls the timekeeping
of clocks & watches. (See Platform Escapements)
||Cylindrical part that in European spring
driven clocks that contains the mainspring, and, in weight driven
clocks has the cables wrapped around it.
||Spindle with a hook, or, slot that catches
the mainspring and has a square external end for winding.
||The beat of a clock is its tick, a clock must
be 'in beat' for it to be reliable and a good timekeeper, a clock is in
beat when the tick and tock of the clock are at equal intervals.
||Metal frame often holding a glass.
||The weight at the end of the
that is moved up or down in order to regulate the clock.
||In watches, the upper plate which contains
either bushings, or, jewels upon which the arbor pivot rotates. In most
watches, and some clocks that employ a platform escapement a separate
bridge is used to support the escapement components. Watches may have up
to five or six bridges. Each bridge adds to the expense of the watch,
however, expedites repairs as a complete disassembly may not become
||Type of dead beat escapement used in
many French clocks using semicircular pins in the pallets.
||A brass ‘bearing’ into which an arbor pivot
fits and rotates.
||Cables made of gut or wires are used in both
weight driven clocks and fusee clocks.
||Pinion that holds the minute hand
usually a friction fit over the center wheel, or, loose over center
pipe of a clock in order to allow the minute hand to be moved.
||Type of clock fitted with a
escapement to enable it to be moved without the problems of putting
the clock in-beat usually in a gilded brass case with glass panels
||Wheel on that the cannon pinion is
fitted, usually next to the barrel or great wheel, depending on the type
||A seconds hand fitted to an arbor
pivoted at the center of the dial usually at the same point as the
hour and minute hands.
||Circle on a dial that carries the
markings for the hour and minutes.
||Clock that sounds a tune at each quarter of
an hour such Westminster, Whittington, etc.
||Clock or watch often used on board ship that
gives excellent timekeeping.
or pawl used to prevent the mainspring, or
weight, unwinding when wound. The click is held
in position by the click-spring.
||Bracket or small plate attached to larger
plate to hold parts that are fitted outside the main plates
||A washer used in conjunction with a pin to
hold parts such as the minute hand to an arbor.
where the teeth are at right
angles to the plane of the wheel to transmit the power of the clock train
through 90 degrees used in verge
escapement clocks and
||Wheel used in striking clocks with either a
combination of shallow and deep cuts or slots, or, merely deep slots at
different spacing used to stop the strike train after striking the
appropriate number. Strike halts when a rod, commonly called a
enters a deep slot.
||Escape wheel of a
escapement transmitting power to the
||Part attached to the
pallets used to
transmit power to the pendulum.
||Type of escapement where
there is no recoil caused by the swing of the
George Graham invented one such escapement.
||A piece that positions and holds
another part in position.
||The visible 'face' of the clock on that the
numerals or chapter ring are situated and from that one can tell
||The free travel of the escape wheel
between the impulse and the locking of the pallets.
||English Dial clock where the
hangs beyond the circle of the dial and is cased below the dial
sometimes with a glass aperture to show the brass faced pendulum.
||Distance required for the
weights of a
clock to fall in the clock's duration.
||Another term for barrel.
||Grande Sonnerie clocks have a silent
strike where both hammers are held clear of the
this happens after the hours have been struck and before the quarters are
||A small disc seen through a slit in the
dial of some clocks attached to the
pallets to show the
movement of the pendulum.
||Time over that the clock will run on one
||Wheel that transmits power through the
pallet to the pendulum.
||Term used for the type of parts that transmit
power to the pendulum or other device that regulates timekeeping; such as
the verge, anchor,
dead beat and platform
||See Dummy Pendulum.
||A component of the strike sequence that, in
concert with the count wheel controls the number of strikes.
||Ornamental piece of turned wood or brass
fitted to the top of cases.
||Early form of
oscillating arms attached to a verge
adjustable weights to regulate timekeeping.
|Fly or Fly Wheel
||Vane used to regulate the speed of the
striking train using air resistance. (See 'Governor')
||Spring washer, used mainly in English clocks
to connect the cannon pinion to the
center wheel whilst
allowing the minute hand to be moved.
||The clock's main front plate positioned just
under the dial.
||Cone shaped part usually with grooves to
accept a cable attached to the
barrel, fixed to the great
wheel of the clock by a slip washer with the winding ratchet inside.
Its purpose is to equalize the torque exerted by the mainspring as the
spring runs down, when fully wound the line pulls on the small end of the
cone and when unwound the line is at the large end of the cone thus the
power applied to the train is more or less the same when it is
fully wound as it is at the end of its duration.
||Part of the striking mechanism that gathers
one tooth of the rack per strike thus counting number of
strikes, sometimes also used to lock the strike train at the
completion of striking. Used in lieu of a count wheel. (See ‘Rack and
||A type of universal joint used in ships'
chronometers to keep the movement horizontal.
||Rod or coil of hard metal such as bronze or
hardened steel struck by a hammer during chiming or striking.
||Flat, fan like pieces of brass that are
released during the strike and chime sequence to control the speed of the
chime or strike.
||Striking clock that strikes the last hour and
the quarters at each quarter hour.
||Common name given to Long-case clocks.
||First wheel in the
train attached to
the barrel or fusee.
||Pendulum invented by John Harrison to
compensate for changes in temperature, arrangement of steel and brass rods
fixed in different positions that expand different amounts keep the
pendulum the same length.
||A very thin, coiled spring to which a balance
wheel is connected.
||Part that is lifted and then released to
strike a gong or bell in a striking or chiming clock.
||The 'pointers' that enable the viewer to tell
the time, many different patterns have been designed over the years and
can be a good indicator of the age of a clock.
||The top of a
Long-case clock that can
be removed by pulling forward or sometimes upwards in early clocks.
||Wheel in the striking
a count wheel clock that a lever stops at the end of the striking.
||Wheel on to that the hour hand is
fitted sometimes bearing on a separate cock that holds it away from the
cannon pinion over that it is fitted; it is driven by the
||The period during that the escape wheel
imparts power to the pallets.
||Usually a ruby, is found in watches, or
platform escapement clocks, and is used in lieu of a bushing. A jewel will
outlast a bushing at least 100-fold. Each jewel adds to the value of the
clock or watch.
||Early weight driven 30 hour clock with
brass case with 4 posts at the corners and bell at the top, with a
verge escapement and in the earliest clocks a
foliot later with a pendulum made c.1630-1730.
||Old form of pinion in that pins are
held between 2 discs rather than leaves or teeth cut from the metal of the
||Each tooth of a cut pinion is called a
||Another term for a
||Commonly known as a 'Grandfather Clock'.
||See Great Wheel.
||A long strip of hardened & tempered steel
coiled into a barrel or with a loop around a pillar used to
give power to the train of a clock.
||A device used to provide power to a
driven or fusee clock during winding, without it there is a
possibility of damage to some escapements due to the swinging of
the pendulum whilst no power is getting to the escapement.
||A wheel in the
often with a pin that releases the striking mechanism, driven by the
cannon pinion it drives the hour wheel.
||See Dummy Pendulum.
||The mechanism under the
keeps the hour and minute hands correctly aligned.
||The works of a clock or
||Small hollow area concentric with
hole in bushing or jewel, intended to retain the oil at the pivot.
| Pallet (aka Fork)
||In a pendulum or
weight driven clock, pallets
are the faces of the verge (Often jewels.) The part of the
escapement that takes power from the escape wheel and delivers it
to the movement with each oscillation of the balance wheel.
||A clock striking just once each hour as the
minute hand passes the hour is described as a passing strike clock.
||A rod with weight at the bottom usually
suspended at the top by a spring or silk cord, a method of regulation
is normally fitted, making the pendulum shorter makes the clock run
||Metal pieces that hold the plates
together the correct distance apart.
|A drum with pins protruding that lift
hammers in a chiming or musical clock as the drum revolves. The
‘pins’ often are not actually pins protruding, rather, raised points in
the drum that performs an identical function.
||A wheel in the striking
with pins to lift a hammer during striking.
||Part of the train with leaves or teeth
driven by the wheels of the train.
||End of an arbor that revolves in a
hole in the plates.
||Upper and lower, flat brass pieces between
which the wheels and other internal parts are fitted.
||Used in lieu of pendulum escapements,
consisting of a balance wheel,
pallets, escape wheel,
and, a hairspring mounted between two flat brass plates (See
Platform Escapements are most often found on French clocks, in particular
carriage clocks. (Many new clocks utilize platform escapements). All
watches utilize a platform escapement.
||Bracket or cock that carries the lower
pivot of the crown wheel of a
||A mechanism that when a cord is pulled
repeats the last hour strike or quarters of a separate chiming train.
||Wheel around which the
cables of a
weight driven clock run halving the drop required but also halving the
force imparted on the train.
||A mechanism usually on carriage clocks that
when a button is pushed repeats the last hour strike.
||A train that is activated at each
quarter of an hour playing a tune on more than 2 bells or gongs.
||Part of the striking mechanism with teeth
that are counted by the gathering pallet and a tail that falls on to the
snail selecting the count to be struck, invented in 1676.
||Piece that holds the rack in position between
strikes until the next tooth is picked up by the gathering pallet and that
holds the rack in position when striking is completed.
|Rack & Snail
||In lieu of a count wheel, the
rack and snail
control the number of strikes during a strike sequence. The snail is so
called due to its physical resemblance to a common snail shell that has a
sequence of shallow to deep recesses. At the commencement of the strike
sequence, the rack is released and falls upon the snail. The amount of
‘drop’ or distance it falls determines the number of times the
pallet engages the rack hooks, hence the number of strikes.
||Wheel with angled teeth to prevent
unwinding when held by the click.
||The amount by that a clock gains or loses.
||A nut on a pendulum used to raise or
lower a pendulum bob (Lower = Slower).
||The amount the escape wheel is pushed
backwards by the swing of the pendulum on a
||A weight driven
pendulum clock without
a striking train designed for very accurate timekeeping, although
so called Vienna regulators often have striking trains.
||The part of a clock designed to alter the
rate of a clock (as in rating nut) but normally associated with
balance wheel clocks like carriage clocks.
||A clock with a mechanism that when activated
repeats the striking of the last hour.
||The board to which a movement is fixed.
Typically found in Long Case clocks.
||A cam like wheel on to that the
tail drops in order to select the number to strike. (See
Rack & Snail
||An ornamental piece fitted to the corner of
dials, the designs vary greatly and can help in dating of clocks.
||A star cut wheel held by a
position either a date wheel or a striking snail.
||A mechanism used to prevent a clock from
being over wound most commonly found in fusee movements.
||A hammer hitting a
gong or bell
counting the hours.
||A mechanism that allows the striking
to be turned off without causing damage to the movement.
||The piece on that a pendulum hangs,
usually a spring but in some older clocks a piece of thread is used.
||See Center Seconds.
||A clock that neither
||A striking clock that sounds the
quarters on two tone gongs or bells.
||The wheels and
pinions of a
clock, the 'going' train keeps the time, also 'striking' &
'chiming' trains are used in more complicated clocks.
||An early type of
technically the shaft on to that the pallet faces are fitted.
||A few minutes before the hour many striking
mechanisms lift a warning piece that lifts the rack hook, allowing
the rack to fall on to the snail and letting the strike
to run, until the pin on the warning wheel is stopped by the warning
piece, at the hour the warning lever drops of the lifting pin on the
minute wheel and allows the striking train to run.
||The weights provide the power for the
trains of a clock often made of lead sometimes encased in brass or
||Circular piece with teeth cut around its
circumference fitted on to an arbor these make up the train of a